Inkerman, Eski-kermen and other cave cities
ЂэъхЁьрэ it is a city on the earths of Sevastopol, entitled a building and facing material: inkermansky a stone - dense white limestone. Extracted it from time immemorial, therefore neighbouring rocks are penetrated by catacombs. Used them for the military purposes, for hospitals and monastic cells. Underground labyrinths for endurance of wines are ideal.
the Inkermansky cave monastery is located on right to river bank Black at its confluence of Northern bay of vicinities of Sevastopol. Based in VIII-IX centuries the monks-ikonopochitateljami running from Byzantium from prosecutions ikonobortsev, it consisted of several churches and a complex of inhabited and economic caves. Cave premises outside of a rock are designated by arch windows, incorporated triangular timpanami. The monastery operates now and is restored.
Over belfries of a monastery which are arranged directly on a steep rock, towers of a medieval fortress Kalamita tower. It protected trading port of the Mangupsky princedom of Avlitu. Subsequently on her name it began to be called and port.
In XV century feodority conducted through Kalamitu brisk trade; used port and the Crimean khanate. From here took away the slaves grasped by Tatars on Russian, Ukrainian and Polish earths.
In 1434 genoeses have plundered and have burnt Kalamitu. However after defeat of the Genoa armies under Solhatom (Old Crimea) mangupskie princes have built up again a fortress.
In 1475 Turks have with little effort seized a fortress and have renamed in Inkerman. They owned Inkermanom to a XVIII-th century, before joining of Crimea to Russia.
Very original monument of technology is the Inkermansky open-cast mine which bottom is filled by recently brightly green-blue spring water. Source waters sacred Klimenta , caused by its prayer almost here have left two thousand years ago. Kliment was the first Roman bishop imposed still by sacred Peter. Here on suburb of empire it have banished, but it began to preach in Chersonese and then it have sent in a stone quarry.
Throughout all these years the open-cast mine operated! From convicts of Roman empire and to modern stone-cutting cars of a rock store shtolni, developments, huge terraces. In the lake completely separated by rocky breakages, - excellent bathing, unlike the Inkermansky bay where there are no beaches, but only port constructions.
Inkerman is connected by ancient pack tracks with set of other cave cities and monasteries of Mountain Crimea. Naturally, on them the set of popular routes which pass now not only on foot is laid, but also overcome top, on mountain bicycles, krossovyh motorcycles, kvadrotsiklah or jeeps. Almost all well-known cave cities and monasteries are accessible from Sevastopol, and in the most popular (Chufut-kale, Eski-kermen and Mangup) get on comfortable transport can and not prepared public. However it is necessary to take care of convenient footwear on a nonslipping sole.
Within the limits of this site we will tell only about the objects adjoining the earths of Sevastopol.
Eski-Kermen (the Old Fortress — tjurksk.) — one of large "яхЁхЁэ№§ уюЁюфют" Crimea. It is based on a remote plateau in the beginning of VI century; under the assumption, skifo-Sarmatians. Over breakages defensive walls from large-size blocks of limestone in 2 metres and height to 3,5 metres lasted in the thickness. Towers-casemates have been cut in rocks or combined from a stone. On a siege case the deep well on 70 cubic metre of water has been cut down. The most part of territory of a fortress was vacant — as a reserve of the protected area and a refuge for inhabitants of a valley on a case of military danger.
The Inhabited city occupied the space of 10 hectares and almost has been entirely built up by the two-storeyed houses covered with a tile. The first stone floor with the cellars cut down in a rock served for economic needs; the second — a vein — was wooden and, as a rule, with balconies. In a city there were a waterpipe from the potter's pipes bringing water from springs of the next height for four kilometres, some cult constructions, a necropolis.
Sklony Eski-Kermena are cut up by caves. Them nearby 350 they also concern mostly to XII — XIII centuries of the Cave served as premises for cattle, craft workshops, davilnjami grapes and tanks for grape juice.
In destiny of a fortress there were many heartrending experiences. The first defeat of Eski-Kermena has occurred in VIII century. Definitively the city has ceased to exist in the end of XIII century, in 1299 it has been burnt by hordes of Nogaja.
Severo-to the west "яхЁхЁэюую уюЁюфр" Eski-Kermena on a plateau of the next cape there is a tower with collars — the rests of the lock the Kyz-sack (the Maiden tower).
the Kyz-sack — the characteristic medieval lock-fortress. Ahead of a tower there was a superficial ditch, moved through it on perekidnomu to the bridge to which from the south the road conducted. Both the ditch, and road have been cut down in a rock.
The fortress the Kyz-sack in XIV century was lost from a fire. There was only a tower fanned by poetic legends and legends...
In gorge to the west the Kyz-sack in the Middle Ages also there was a settlement. In one of gorge rocks the small church in which fragments of fresco XII—XIV have remained centuries has been cut. In the literature this church name a temple of Aid donors. Consider, as the temple, and village in gorge belonged once to owners the Kyz-sack.
Feodoro — Mangup-Kale
In the south of the Bakhchsarai area, behind Hodzha-fat village, Mangup-Kale — capital of a medieval princedom of Feodoro has settled down. The large village Ternovka nearest to it administratively already concerns the earths of Sevastopol. The way from a city is very simple and extremely beautiful, therefore Mangup one of the most popular places. Numerous clubs of divers (skin-divers) especially recommend lifting for a local plateau in very important process of restoration after deep-water immersings.
The Ancient city has been constructed on big stoloobraznoj a grief the Woman-dag ("+=ёр уюЁр") in a southwest part of foothills. Its territory has been protected by walls and towers and represented powerful defensive knot. Here an environment is to the full combined with the strengthenings created by hands of the person.
ertikalnye breakages of rocks excluded application possibility at fortress storm stenobitnyh and throwing tools, mobile towers. At the same time the dominating height on which the city settled down, allowed to rake from usual onions all approaches to it.
On Mangupe there are two never a drying up source and the artificial well which has been dug out in a citadel. All it did Mangup by a city, capable to resist to any opponent of that time.
Archeological excavations have given the plentiful material testifying to development of craft and trade in a princedom of Feodoro and its capital. The considerable quantity of keys, locks, knifes, instruments of labour speaks about development of forge craft. Ceramics among which is and hersonesskaja, — the proof of intensive trade of a princedom. In the summer of 1475 the numerous army a Turk has landed at Kafy (Feodosiya) and after a three-day siege has occupied a city. All coast of Crimea is fast has been grasped by Turks. Their army has approached to capital of a princedom of Feodoro — Mangupu. Six months stood Turks at the unapproachable fortress, six times went on a city attack, having applied against those days besieged a novelty — guns.
Though the citadel at storm has been destroyed, the part of defenders was lost, the part has got to slavery, and the peace population — Christians and karaimy (a Judaism branch) — some more honeycombs of years lived in a city. Special quarter occupied guljamy — the boys rendering sexual services. Growing they usually became bodyguards, kljuchnikami, managers in the house of the former admirers. Guljamy in the Middle Ages were in all Muslim countries, forming special group with the traditions.
Many years on Mangupe are conducted archeological excavations in which scientists, and also students and schoolboys from the different countries participate. Each new season brings all new finds, including treasures.
Now Mangup is extremely popular among contactors, psychics, tolkinistov and other informal movements. It is mastered also dzhippery, by bikers and especially advanced mountain bicyclists. Here always it is a lot of artists, photographers, the musicians, interesting people of every possible trades, faiths and talents.
In village Ternovka vicinities it is possible to visit two more small monuments of medieval history.
— considerable in the sizes the cave monastery, which occurrence carry Chelter to VIII century, and destruction — to on races of nomads in XIII century. In it is more than 50 caves located in four circles. The land buildings standing on slopes, have not remained.
Shuldan — a medieval monastery. This small cave settlement which has arisen in the end of VIII century. From a monastic complex the temple with kreshchalnej and an episcopal armchair in an altar, cut in a rock has remained. On its walls and now traces of a list which date XII — XIII centuries are still appreciable
In addition on the given theme:
Northern, the Radio hill, Uchkuevka, Ljubimovka
Orlovka, Kacha, Andreevka and cape Lukull, the Cornel-jar
Balaklava, cape Fiolent (Feolent), cape Ajja, Batiliman and Laspi
the Bajdarsky valley