the Lay-out and transport. 23 bays - the main pride of Sevastopol, it and its main problem as they proceed the same number of ravines which then in upper courses are still split up. So a city the extremely difficult, scattered on bays and beams, without local it is impossible to understand. But the centre where the basic tourist sights not only beautifully are located and is built stylishly up, but also logically planned: three main streets (Lenin, Big Sea and so forth Nakhimov) between three main squares (Nakhimov, Ushakov, Revolution). The central hill is over railway and bus stations.
It is difficult to give any smooth system of their survey, and it is impossible even to look everything for a month that is noteworthy in this city. Therefore we will be limited to that simply is evident and causes curiosity.
Near to road service station steam locomotive ЭЛ-2500 with an inscription "РьхЁ=і ¶р°шё=рь" is established on eternal parking;. In defence it drove in fight legendary an armored train "гхыхчэ ъют" which was constructed by workers of the Sevastopol sea factory in November, 1941
On an armored train 4 ship tools, 6 mortars, 14 machine guns have been established. Having made 140 fighting spot-checks on a first line, "гхыхчэ ъют" directed the present panic at Hitlerites. After each spot-check it took cover in the tunnel where has been long inaccessible to enemy batteries and aircraft.
The Center of Sevastopol, a high hill in an environment of three remarkably built up streets and three areas, is simply continuous exposition. Twice the city maintained unprecedented sieges and has been completely destroyed. The belokamennye buildings effectively reflected in blueness of bays, are constructed after II th world war in classical style. Everywhere monuments and exotic greens.
But if to get acquainted with a city history one after another, it is necessary to begin with visiting of Hersonessky archaeological reserve in the western part of a city, on coast of the Quarantine bay. Chersonese has existed about 2 thousand years (from the end of V century BC till first half XV century d.C.). The city, to be exact the antique policy (a city-state with extensive agricultural okrugoj) have been based by seafarers from Geraklei Pontijsky, one of policies of Ancient Ellady on maloazijskom to coast of Black sea. The cult of Gerakla prospered and in Chersonese though its name is translated simply as peninsula. The antique policy quickly expands, uniting ellinisticheskie settlements of the Western Crimea and Southern coast, dividing in constant opposition with the Bosporsky kingdom the power over all peninsula. We were reached by the oath of inhabitants of Chersonese, cut on marble in III century B.C., allowing precisely enough to present state development.
Here we will not go deep into history of Chersonese, about it interest nom, mysterious and, undoubtedly, fine place many books are written. The only thing that it is necessary to note, — to visit Sevastopol and not to visit Chersonese – the big omission. But you should allocate for visiting of an ancient city all the day: in this place it is necessary to walk, think, absorb energy of our ancestors, instead of simply to run on it with excursion. After slow walk on an ancient city you with pleasure will bathe on local beaches with the cleanest water and usually without waves.
Cохранились powerful fortifications and towers, city gate, the rests of theatre of antique time, and also street and quarters with court yard, wells, inhabited and public buildings of the Ancient Greek policy. The tower of Zenona, a crosswise temple concern the Middle Ages with an inlaid floor, basils, kreshchalnja and many other things. Chersonese serially was under the power of Rome and Constantinople.
Memorial estate "+хЁёюэхё-КртЁшёхёъшщ" (54-31-25) it is interesting not only excavation and an exposition, but also numerous cultural actions.
At the time of Osmansky sovereignty Chersonese definitively dies away, and near to it there is a small strengthening of Ak-jar (White breakage, Ahtijar in Russian pronunciation). On remarkable local bays attention svetlejshego the prince G.Potyomkin, possibly, have turned zaporozhtsy. Time and again they by the easy boats "ёрщър§" burnt down the Turkish ships and arranged touches on harbour. Catherine the Great has made the historical decision that here in the Ahtijarsky bay (now the main bay of a hero town is called Simply Sevastopol) there will be a main base of new fleet of the Russian empire.
On January, 11th, 1783 "фы commands of got fleet on Black and Azov ьюЁ §" vice-admiral F. A.Klokachev has been appointed.
To the middle of a XIX-th century the city becomes the big city of Crimea, its population reaches 46 thousand persons.
One of the central hills of a city – Historical parkway . Here the unique museum – a panorama "+сюЁюэр Sevastopol 1854 – 1855 уюфют". is located
The Panorama is devoted one of the most considerable episodes of defence of a city – to reflexion on June, 6th, 1855 storm of strengthenings of the third bastion of Malakhov of a barrow. It is created under the direction of Russian painter Frantsa Rubo. The area of a picturesque cloth of 1610 square metres (14х15, the subject plan – 900. During the Great Patriotic War seamen managed to take out on Continent and to rescue only 86 fragments of a picturesque cloth. The panorama has been restored to the 100 anniversary of the first defence of Sevastopol. The cylindrical building of a panorama from white inkermanskogo limestone with a dome-shaped roof has been constructed in the XX-th century beginning.
Here, in Historical parkway, there is a memorial complex on a place of the well-known fourth bastion, including a monument in honour of defenders of a bastion, a monument to general E. I.Totlebenu, an obelisk on a place of the Jazonovsky redoubt on which second lieutenant Lev Tolstoi battled. The defensive line of Sevastopol during the Crimean war consisted of seven bastions and twenty batteries. The first, the second, the third and Kornilovsky, named to a thicket Malakhov a barrow, were on the Ship party; the fifth – on a height next to Historical parkway; the sixth – around street 6th Bastionnoj; the seventh – ashore near to Crystal cape. Bastions made a basis glubokoeshelonirovannoj fortress defences. Monuments and memorable signs have been built on places of all seven bastions, having formed uniform system of monuments in the area of defence. They organically entered into all memorial complex devoted about rone of Sevastopol 1854-1855 Monuments enter into a basis of a memorial complex of the Fifth bastion – a memorial cemetery of Communards, the main avenue conducts to a monument to the lieutenant P.Schmidt, heads of revolt in November, 1905 ochakovtsam to S.Chastniku, N.Antonenko and A.Gladkov, in a necropolis it is a lot of tombs of the heroes who were lost at defence of a city in 1941 – 1942. Is here and a communal grave of seamen of a battle ship "-ютюЁюёёшщёъ" sunk from explosion in 1955. Here admiral F. S.Oktjabrsky is buried also, during war ordering the Black Sea fleet.
Having gone down from Historical parkway, we will appear on Ushakov's areas – one of three areas limiting old city centre.
Along the street Lenin by office buildings we go to Nakhimov's area and the Count landing stage located on this area.
On the right side, without reaching Nakhimov's area, is the Naval museum of the Black Sea fleet – Lenin's street, 11. The museum at the initiative of participants of the first defence of Sevastopol is opened on September, 14th, 1869. Among its exhibits there are personal things of admirals of P.S.Nakhimov, V.A.Kornilova, V.I.Istomin, N.I.Pirogova's surgical tools, fighting banners, trophy relics. One of museum departments is in a premise of the former church of St. Michael in which read the burial service over the glorified commanders. The museum exposition occupies seven halls and tells about stories of fleet from its basis up to now.
At once behind a museum – the Officers' Club of the Black Sea Fleet . In the afternoon and in the evening here it is possible to hear to a concert, and if it will be pleasant to remain on all night long on a disco. the art museum of M.Kroshitskogo is on Nakhimov's prospectus, 9. It is created in 1965 on the basis of an art gallery. In an exposition and museum funds contains over five thousand products of painting, a drawing, a sculpture, an applied art. The museum by right is considered one of the best in Ukraine.
The Historical centre of Sevastopol – the area of Admiral Nakhimov in which centre the monument to a legendary admiral is established. Opposite to a monument there is a Memorial wall in honour of heroic defence 1941 – 1942 . On granite boards – names of parts and the ships, and also the list of Heroes of Soviet Union protecting Sevastopol. At Eternal fire the guard of honour is born by schoolboys.
Closes the area of Admiral Nakhimov a white colonnade Count landing stage which forms a sea facade of a city and is one of its symbols. Building of landing stage from a tic on the steel piles, a wide granite ladder going down to the sea, has been finished in 1846. Before here there was a mooring erected in the end of a XVIII-th century by the commander by a squadron of the Black Sea fleet by count M.I.Voinovich. In honour of the count the landing stage also is nicknamed. It tried to rename twice, but the naval tradition has resisted, and even in a Soviet period to this name have reconciled.
Seaside parkway – the favourite vacation spot sevastopoltsev – adjoins the area of Admiral Nakhimov. Before revolution the input on quay of Seaside parkway has been limited. On the main collars the poster hung: "¦р=Ёюёрь and to dogs an input тюёяЁхЁхэ". It was a place of walks for the senior officers and their families. Now the considerable part of parkway is rented by Russia for sports club of the Black Sea fleet. Andreevsky flags and Russian trikolor (it is not simple so, and for the big money of a rent) Here develop. To honour of Russia all tourists have free possibility to walk here, to admire pink beds, historical monuments and fine kinds of the Ahtijarsky bay. Over quay the modern building of pool with the warmed-up sea water towers. Besides naval sporstmenov, also all interested persons here can float. To the sea go down the big steps of a bench for spectators of sea representations and sports competitions with whom seamen of the Russian and Ukrainian fleet arrange here in common.
In 10 metres from quay there is one more known symbol of Sevastopol. Here directly from water rises established on it is artificial the built islet the Monument to the flooded ships , blocked in 1854 a way to enemy fleet. At a retaining wall, opposite to a monument, two anchors from the flooded courts are established.
To the left of the Monument to the flooded ships is the Aquarium of Institute of biology of the southern seas NAN Ukraine, one of the oldest biological establishments of the world investigating a life of the sea. The central pool has diameter of 9,2 m, depth of 1,5 m. Wall aquariums have volume about 7 cubic metre everyone, and all them is 12. In them there live various representatives of sea fauna of Silent, Atlantic and Indian oceans, the Black, Mediterranean and Red seas. The Sevastopol biological station organised in 1871 under the offer of great scientists – baron N. N.Mikluho-Maklaja was the predecessor of institute and And. O.Kovalevskogo.
Opposite to Seaside parkway towers Sailor's parkway . In 1834 on it the monument first in Sevastopol which have immortalised a feat of captain-lieutenant A. I.Kazarskogo, the commander of a brig "¦хЁъѕЁшщ" has been established; fearlessly battling to two Turkish linear ships in May, 1829.
From Nakhimov's prospectus on the longest in Sevastopol the Sinop ladder can rise on the main hill of a city. Him crowns built in the Byzantian style the Vladimir cathedral with shlemovidnym a dome and a gilt cross. In a temple ground floor there is a tomb of admirals of M.P.Lazareva, V.A.Kornilova, P.S.Nakhimov, V.I.Istomin. But the tomb by order of Bolsheviks has been devastated, as admirals declared "яюёюсэшърьш bloody imperial Ёхцшьр". The finding of remains of nice Russian admirals which besides military feats have made also geographical opening, is not known hitherto. On a cathedral square it is not quite pertinent (but there's nothing to be done) have attached a monument to Lenin. At a sight at it from the centre he for some reason is invocatory specifies a hand in temple crosses. But in modern political predilections sevastopoltsev Orthodoxy and the Bolshevism also are closely bound.
The Cathedral – the most appreciable building of Sevastopol, its height it is equal 32,55 metres. It is topographical city centre. In a cathedral divine services are spent, in the week-days from 9.00 till he can be visited with excursion.
If we go from the centre towards the Ship party we will arrive on well-known Malakhov a barrow – a key position of defence in days of the Crimean war. It towers on the Ship party. At barrow top the stone tower has remained. Marble boards are attached to its walls with transfer of all military divisions defending a bastion. The monument to vice-admiral V.A.Kornilovu and a memorial plate on a mortal wound place admiral P.S.Nakhimov are nearby established on June, 28th, 1855.
From Malakhov of a barrow it is possible to pass on the next, third bastion which was settling down on other party of the Dock ravine. The English armies operating against a bastion, and could not take it. Here there is a monument of Gnatu of Shevchenko. In one of night fights it has covered with itself(himself) the commander of lieutenant Birjuleva and has saved to it a life. The monument is built in 1874.
In addition on the given theme:
Inkerman, Eski-kermen and other cave cities
Northern, the Radio hill, Uchkuevka, Ljubimovka
Orlovka, Kacha, Andreevka and cape Lukull, the Cornel-jar
Balaklava, cape Fiolent (Feolent), cape Ajja, Batiliman and Laspi
the Bajdarsky valley