the Short review of historical events
Position of Sevastopol in the centre of Black sea has defined strategic interest to it of all empires, including Roman, Byzantian, Ottomansky, British, Russian. Red and White, Stalin and Hitler. For it battled, died, made feats. It destroyed and strengthened that, others. Also decorated everything, hoping for long fruits of a victory.
The Ancient Greek colony Chersonese Taurian, based in 422 BC natives of Geraklei Pontijsky was the Predecessor of a city. A city prosushchestvol about 2 thousand years, till first half XV century d.C.
In the beginning 1783 year, even before formal joining of Crimea to Russia, the first ships of the Black Sea fleet are put, and on coast of the Ahtiarsky bay the first quarters of Sevastopol are erected.
Arrival here in 1787 to year of the empress Catherine II was Grandiose and grandiose event. Its visitor the emperor of Austro-Hungary Joseph II has been shaken by travel and especially fighting power of the Black Sea fleet created together with a city. Armies of Austro-Hungary and Russia have soon compelled Turkey to leave Moldova and Crimea for ever.
1853-1856 years - the Crimean (East) war. Sevastopol becomes a place of heroic battles on a land and the sea: Russia struggles against England, France and the Sardinian kingdom, rescuing influence of Turkey on Black sea. But operations go also on caucasus and other regions of disputable interests.
Years of the Crimean war were given to all world by two new trades: the military press photographer - one of them the Englishman Roger Fenton , the founder of the Royal photographic society, and field sister of mercy. Florens Najtingejl (Florence Nightingale) has prepared 38 "фрь high фѕ°ш" also has adjusted the help to wounded men directly in the field of fight, and soon the Grand duchess Elena Pavlovna Romanov has trained 165 Russian sisters of mercy.
Heroic defence of a city lasted from September, 13th, till August, 28th, 1855 . Defenders of Sevastopol have created a defensive line during the shortest time. The fleet has been flooded in a bay not to admit blow from the sea. In memory of this tragical event at Seaside parkway it is established the Monument to the flooded ships .
Having stretched from Balaklavy a branch line, armies of the enemy conducted continuous bombardment of a city from obsidional tools and almost a year later have grasped a southern part of Sevastopol. On conditions of the shameful peace treaty Russia lost the right to have in Black sea fighting fleet. Sevastopol lying in ruins has lost strategic value, but became the centre of tourism first in Russia. And, as this war named "тющэющ ъѕчхэют" (among officers of battling armies many aristocratic families have been made related), the former opponents together visited ruins of defensive works and a tomb of the fighting friends.
One of parkways in Paris has received the name Sevastopol, and serfdom cancellation, judicial, administrative, military and police reforms became the main monument to heroes-sevastopoltsam in Russia. Railways were under construction in huge scales on all empire, and by the end of 19 centuries have connected already and many cities of Crimea, having defined fast rates of its economic development. By this time distribution of forces in Europe has changed in favour of Russia and the Black Sea fleet has been immediately restored, has been created anew from battleships, battle ships, torpedo boats, cruisers – on the basis of cars and the newest arms more precisely.
But in a city became ripe new events. Heroes revolutions of 1905 steels the lieutenant P.Schmidt and other participants of revolt on a cruiser "+ёръют" buried on the Cemetery of Communards.
With 21 on April, 28th 1918 year crews of the Black Sea fleet conducted fights around Alma with the German armies occupying on conditions of the Brest world Ukraine. Germans have entered a city on May, 1st. The Black Sea fleet has been flooded. After monarchy overthrow in Germany for counteraction to Bolsheviks the territory released by Germans should be engaged in allies of Russia on Antante. In Sevastopol instead of hundred-thousandth army it has been landed hardly more than 20 thousand Frenchmen, Greeks and Senegaleses, but anti-war propaganda of Bolsheviks has spread out army of the allies, cracked is moral four and a half years of senseless war, and on April, 29th, 1919 the allied squadron leaves from coast of Sevastopol. The Soviet power has held on in Sevastopol of less month, on June, 23rd the Voluntary army without fight occupies a city. After break of red armies to Crimea, defence has not been organised, and on November, 15th the rests of white army and a part of the peace population were evacuated by the ships of allies, having withdrawn with itself remained not flooded a fleet part. Remained the red terror which has destroyed besides white officers of thousand of women and children from families of noble family waited. Members of the Komsomol and red guards had been blew up monasteries and the temples covering refugees.
In 1941 – 1942 during war with fascist Germany Sevastopol has been again surrounded by the enemy from a land and blocked from the sea. This time the heroic siege lasted 8 months.
By estimates of the French military historian Shassena, only for last 25 days of a siege the German aircraft has dumped to Sevastopol as much bombs, how many English air fleet – to Germany for two years of war. Ordering armies vermahta near Sevastopol field marshal Manshtejn wrote in memoirs: "-ю to the Second World War Germans never reached such massed application of artillery, as in approach on Рхтрё=юяюыі".
On 100 platforms under Sevastopol the gun of "Dora" has been brought and mounted. The tool calibre equaled 800 mm, the length of a trunk reached 50 m, the tool of 1350 tons weighed. The weight of artillery shells made 7 tons.
On the night of July, 1st the Rate order about ostavlenii Sevastopol and evacuation of armies has arrived. But it was the formal decision: it was possible to be evacuated very much by the little.
Having begun approach in the middle of April, the Soviet armies on May, 9th 1944 year have released Sevastopol.
1948 – the city of Sevastopol and extensive agricultural territory round it are deduced from administrative structure of the Crimean area of RSFSR. The city has received the status of all-Union submission.
1954 – the Crimean area is transferred in structure of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Sevastopol keeps the status of all-Union submission, however its municipal, agricultural and other structures of local value become isolated to Kiev.
1991 – Sevastopol together with the formed Crimean Autonomous republic appears as a part of independent Ukraine. The Black Sea fleet in the bolshej passes parts to the Russian federation, also as well as a considerable part of coastal divisions. Russia rents coastal constructions, anchor parking, office buildings and inhabited quarters and pays their maintenance according to long-term agreements with Ukraine.
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